December 2 - Scientist Enrico Fermi supervises the first controlled nuclear chain reaction in 1942 in Chicago. News of the historic event is sent in code to President Roosevelt, "The Italian navigator has landed in the New World".
December 5 - Italian scientist Giovanni Battista Morgagni dies in 1771. He made pathological anatomy an exact science.
December 11 - Italy withdraws from the League of Nations in 1937 in protest of its treatment of Italy during the Italo-Ethiopia war.
December 15 - The Italian Space Agency launches its first satellite in 1964.
December 16 - Guglielmo Marconi conducts the first wireless radio transmission across the Atlantic Ocean in 1901.
December 17 - U.S. Brig. General James Dozier is kidnapped by Red Brigade terrorists. He is later rescued by Italian police and military.
December 19 - Italian frogmen sink the British fleet at Alexandria Harbor in 1941.
December 23 - Inventor Antonio Meucci files a caveat with the U.S. Patent Office for his newly-invented telephone in 1871.
December 24 - Songwriter Salvatore Guaragna (Henry Warren) is born in 1893. His songs included the score for the musical 42nd Street and many other popular hits.
December 26 - The newly created Italian Republic adopts its constitution in 1946 after a general referendum overturned the monarchy.
December 28 - Exiled King Vittorio Emanuele III dies, in exile, in Egypt in 1947.
- Castrophic earthquakes in Calabria and Sicily claim 150,000 in 1908.
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